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Mahmud Ghaznavi (977 – 1030)

Mahmud ghaznavi was the muslim ruler of ghazni who gained fame by raiding india on seventeem times from 1000 to 1027 A.D. On each occasion he defeated hindu kings and returned to Ghazni with enormous wealth.He is the person who bring Islam in sub-continent by capturing the Sommnath.

Sheikh Ahmed Sirhindi (RA)

Sheikh Ahmed Sirhindi was a muslim saint and scholar who flourished during the reigns of Akbar and Jahangir. He differed with etheistic view of Sheikh Mubarak and his sons Faizi and Abul Fazl.Jahangir imprisoned him for his religious activities but released him shortly afterwards. Sheikh ahmed Sirhindi propounded the doctrine of Wahdatul Shahud which successfully countered the Bhakti philosophy of Wahdatul Wujud.

Ibrahim Lodhi (1517-26)

Ibrahim Lodhi was the last lodhi sultan of Delhi. He was defeated by Babur in the First Battle of Panipat in 1526.


After defeating the Ibrahim lodhi ,The mughal empire had been came in existence by Zahir-ul-din Babur

1. Zahir-ul-din Babur
2. Humayun
3. Akber
4. Jahangir
5. Shahjahan
6. Orangzeb alamgir
7. Bhadur Shah Zafar
Downfall of muslim rule (CAUSES)

1.Ignorance of religious beliefs
2. Lack of solidarity
3. Centralization of mughul Administration
4. No law of succession
5. Weakness of Character
6.Educational Decline
7. Military weakness
8. No naval Force

Establishment of British rule

The british east India company was struggling for gaining ground to establish itself permanently on the subcontinent since 1600 A.D. The other European colonialist powers had lost their will to keep themselves in row with the English because of their superiority on seas. Lord Clive established English influence on sound footing and returned to england in 1787
When no rival European power was left on the scene , the English took advantage of the unsettled conditions of India and consolidated themselves politically.They clevely played one local ruler against the other and conquered India with the might of india.They demonstrated a great diplomati skill and employed improved arms with a better knowledge of warfare. The indian rulers at last fell a victim to their own entanglement. They were either forced to accept the authority of East India Company or to be completely wiped off.This process of expansion of the british occupation od India continued in one form orthe other.Kingdom after kingdom fell and then English finally pushed themselves ahead to succeed the mughuls.

Jehad Movement

Jehad Movement was started by Syed Ahmed Barelvi and his companions in the first half of the 19th century.This movement aimed at taking back control of India from the british and the Sikhs. Jehad movement met some sucess in its early stage when the Mujahideen defeated Sikh army and captured Peshawar.

Two Nation Theory

It is the theory that the hindus and muslims are two different nations because each of them has a separate religion, language, architecture, culture and way of life. This theory formed the basis of the pakistan movement which finally led to the creation of pakistan in 1947. Allama Iqbal and Quaid-e-Azam were the greatest exponents of Two-NationTheory.

In the view of Allama Iqbal:
“India is a continent of human groups belonging to different races , speaking different languages and professing different religions….Even the Hindus do not form a homogeneous group. The principle of European democracy can not b applied to india without recognizing the fact of communal groups The muslims demand for the creation of a muslim india within India is, therefore, perfectly justified”

According to Quaid-e-Azam
“We maintain and hold that Muslims and Hindus are two major nations by any definition or test of a nation.We are a nation of a hundred million and what is more we are a nation with our own distinct culture and civilization, language and literature, art and architecture, names nad nomenclature, sense of values and proportion”

Hindi-Urdu Controversy (1867)

Hindi- Urdu Controversy became the focus of nation attention in 1867 when some hindus of benarus tried to replace urdu with hindi as the court language. Sir syed ahmed was disappointed at the anti-Muslim attitude of Hindus.

War of Independence (1857)

The muslim of the Sub-continent fought a war of Independence in 1857 to overthrow the British Raj.However, this war could not succeed because it lacked competent leadership, coordination troops , military and financial resources and modern weapons. After the war, the British held the muslim responsible for this catastrophe and unleashed a wave of oppression and repression on them

M.A.O college Aligarh

In 1875, Muhammad Anglo-Oriental High school was founded by Sir syed ahmed khan. Two years later, in 1877 it was given the status of a college. It functioned from 1877 to 1919 and educated thousands of muslim students who formed the vanguard of pakistan movement.This college was given the status of a muslim university in 1920,after the death of Sir syed ahmed khan.

Deoband Movement

Deoband movement was a socio-religious movement of Indian in the later half of the 19th century. It was started by Maulana Mohd Qasim Nanautvi in 1866. It aimed at educating the muslims in purely religious subjects by keeping english out of its syllabus. It laid stress on Arabic and Persion languages.

Nadva-tul-Ulema, Lucknow 

In 1894, Nadva-tu-Ulema, lucknow was founded by Maulana Abdul Ghafoor and Maulana Shibli Nomani. Nadva aimed at reforming Muslim society by imparting both ecclesiastical and secular knowledge to muslims

Anjuman Himayat-e-Islam, Lahore

Anjuman himayat-e-Islam ,lahore was established in 1884. Khalifa hameeduddin and Maulvi Ghulam Ullah were elected as its first president and secretary respectively.Later on, the Anjuman opened many educational and welfare institutionsion Lahore. Out of these Islamia college Railway road became very famous. The students of Islamia college arranged the annual meeting of muslim league at Lahore on 23rd march 1940 which passed lahore resolution.

First Constituent Assembly

First constituent assembly held its first meeting on 10th august,1947.Originally it comprised of 69 members of Central legislature belonging to punjab,sindh,NWFP and Baluchistan.Later on,the numer of members was raised to 79.This first constituent assemble was dissolved by ghulam mohammad in oct,1954.

Objectives Resolution

The Contituent Assembly approved the objective resolution on 12th mar,1949.It embodied the basic principles for the future contituent of pakistan.The objective resolution stated that the sovereignty belonged to Allah and declared that the Muslims of pakistan would lead their lives according to the principles of Islam and The minorities would b free to practise their religions.

Ulema`s 22 Points

The Govt of pakistan convened a convention of Ulema from 21-24th jan 1951 at karachi.The convention was attended by 31 muslim religious scholars belonging to all sects od Islam.The Ulema agreed on 22 points

Establishment of pakistan (Initial problems and events)

1. Demarcation of boundaries …..Radcliffe`s Award
2. Congress Reaction
3. Uprooting of muslim in punjab
4. Refugees problem and their resettlement
5. Division of Armed forces and Military Assets
6. Division of financial Assets
7. Canal Water Dispute
8. Accession of Princely states (junagarh,kashmir and hyderabad)
9. economic problems and political problems
10. Constitutional problem
11. Death of Quaid-e-Azam

Indus water Treaty

Indus water treaty was signed by india and pakistan in 1960to resolve the outstanding canal water dispute between the two countries.

Rann of Kutch

Rann of Kutch is a wide stretch of marshy land situated towards the south-east of pakistan. In 1965 this area became a scene of border clash betweem india and pak.

Six Points of Mujid-ur-rehman

In feb 1966, Sheikh Mujib the leader of Awami league announced his 6 points, which demanded maximum autonomy for East pakistan.Later on, these points became the basis for the separation movement by Bengalis.

Liaquat – Nehru Pact

Liaquat Ali khan and Nehru signed a pact on 8th april 1950 in delhi.According to this agreement, both the countries agreed to protect the rights of their minorities and undertook to stop propaganda against each other.

Simla Accord

The 1971 Indo-pak was abd the insurgency of bengalis resulted in the separation of east pakistan. The way brought in its wake many issue, which included the release of PoWs, trial of selected PoWs, return of Baharis to pakistan and recognition of bangladesh . In july 1972, Z.A.Bhutto and Indira Gandhi signed an Accord in simla which is historically known as simla accord.

Languages of pakistan

Pakistan is a multi-lingual country. About thirty-one distinct languages are spoken in pakistan, not counting a number of dialects, but no single language is commonly spoken or understood in all parts of the country.Many of the languages are spoken by a relatively small proportion of the population and some are not even commonly written, but sentiment and association among the speakers is almost invariably opposed to absorption into one of the larger units. With minor exception all the languages are also spoken outside the country

Ratio of languages of pakistan 

1. Urdu ( 7.6 )
2. Punjabi ( 44.1 )
3. Pushto ( 15.4 )
4. Sindhi ( 14.1 )
5. Balochi ( 3.6 )
6. Saraiki ( 10.5 )
7. Others ( 4.7 )


According to census of 1981 , religion-wise population of pakistan was as under

1. Muslim = 81,450,057
2. Christians = 1,310,426
3. Hindus = 1,276,116
4. Ahmadis = 104,244
5. Bhuddist = 2639
6. Parsis = 7007
7. Others = 103,155

Economics of Pakistan (Five Year Plans)

So far the government of pakistan has launched the following nine five year plans. ( 1975 to 1978 ) is regarded as no plan period

1. First five year plan (1955-60)
2. Second five year plan (1960-65)
3. Third five year plan (1965-70)
4. Fourth five year plan (1970-75)
5. Fifth five year plan (1978-83)
6. Sixth five year plan (1983-88)
7. Seventh five year plan (1988-93)
8. Eighth five year plan (1993-98)
9. Ninth five year plan (1998-2003)

Important Rivers Of Pakistan

PUNJAB : Jhelum , Chenab , Ravi , Sutlej
SINDH : Hub , Mir Nadi , Arl Nadi
NWFP : Indus , Kabul , Swat , Bara , Chitral , Zhob , Panjkora , Gomal , Kurram
BALUCHISTAN : Hangol , Nari , Bolan , Dasht , Mula , Rakhshan , Pashin Lora

The Largest in Pakistan 

Air Lines : PIA
Air Port : Quaid-e-azam International Airport , Khi
Bank : State bank Of pakistan.The largest commercial bank is Habib bank Ltd with Rs. 194.6 billion desposit
Barrage : Sukkur Barrage
City : Karachi, Estimated population 9.9 millions
Canal : Lloyd Barrage Canal
Dam : Tarbela Dam (vol 148 million cubic metres)
Desert : Thar (sindh)
Division : Kalat division (baluchistan),Area 1,38,633 sq km
District : Khuzdar (baluchistan)
Fort : Rani Kot (sindh)
Gas Field : Sui Gas Field, Baluchistan
Hospital: Nishtar Hospital , Multan
Hydro-Electric Power Station : Tarbela (3478 MW)
Industrial Unit : Pakistan Steel Mills , Karachi
Industry : Textile Industry
Island : Manora (karachi)
Jungle : Chhanga Manga (kasur)
Lake (Artificial) : Keenjhar Lake (sindh)
Lake (natural): Manchhar Lake, Dadu (sindh)
Library : The punjab public Library,Lahore (punjab)
Mine : Salt Mines , Khewra (punjab)
Mosque : Shah Faisal Mosque , Isl
Motorway : Lahore-Islamabad,motorway
Museum : National Museum, karachi
Newspaper : Jang (urdu) ; The news (eng)
Nuclear Reactor : Karachi Nuclear Power plant (KANUPP)
Oil Field : Dhurnal Oil Field
Park : Ayub National Park , Rawalpindi
Radio station : Islamabad
Railway station : Lahore
River : Indus river
University : Punjab University , lahore

The Longest in Pakistan

coast : Balochistan (771 kms long)
Frontier : Pak-Afghan border (2252 kms)
Railway Platform : Rohri (sindh),Length 1894 feet
Railway track : Karachi to Landi kotal
Road : Karachi to peshawar
Tunnel (railway) : Khojak baluchistan (2.43 miles)
Tunnel (road) : Lowari (5 miles)
Tunnel (water) : Warsak Dam Tunnel (3.5 miles)

The Tallest in pakistan

Tower : Minar-e-pakistan (height 196 feet 8 inches)
Minart : Four Minarets of Shah faisal Mosque with height of 286 feet each
Mountain pass : Muztagh Pass (Height 19030 feet)
Mountain peak : K-2 (karakoram) height 28269 feet

Mountain Passes Of Pakistan

1. Muztagh Pass
2. Karakoram Pass
3. Khan kun Pass
4. Zagar Pass 
5. Kilik Pass
6. Khunjrab Pass
7. Mintaka Pass
8. Dorath Pass
9. Babusar Pass
10. Shandur Pass
11. Lowari Pass
12. Buroghil Pass
13. Khyber Pass
14. Shimshal Pass
15. Ganshero Pass
16. Tochi Pass
17. Gomal Pass
18. Durgai Pass
19. Malakand Pass

Foreign Banks Operating In pakistan

1. ABN Amro Bank N.V.
2. Albaraka Islamic Bank BSC (EC)
3. American Express Bank Ltd
4. Standard Chartared Grindlays Bank Ltd
5. Bank of Tokyo Mitsubisho Ltd
6. Bank of Ceylon
7. Citibank N.A
8. Deutsche Bank A.G
9. Emirates Bank International Ltd
10. Habib bank A.G Zurich
11. Mashreq Bank P.S.C
12. Oman Internation Bank S.O.A.G
13 Rupali Bank Ltd
14. Standard Chartered Bank

Saindak Metal (Pvt) Ltd.

The Saindak Metal is the first important metal mining project in pakistan.It is designed to produce 15810 tonnes of blister copper annually which contained gold (1.47 tonnes) and silver (2.76 tonnes)

Metallic Minerals In Pakistan

Alum : Kalat , Khairpur , Peshawar , Quetta
Antimony : Karangli , Qila Abdullah , Shekran
Arsenic : Gilgit , Londku
Bauxite : Dhamman , Jhal , Muzaffarabad , Niazpur
Chromite : Lasbela , Malakand , Muslim bagh , Raskoh
Copper: Koh Marani , Kalat , Maranj , Pishin , Saindak
Gold : Chitral , Gilgit , Karak , Mardan , Lasbella
Iron Ore : Chitral , Chilgazi , Kalabagh, Rashkoh
Lead : Chiral , Khuzdar , Lasbella , Mardan
Magnesite : Kalat , Khumhar , Abbottabad , Zhob
Manganese : Haji Mohd Khan , Abbottabad , Zhob
Silver : Saindak (baluchistan)

Non-Metallic Minerals In pakistan

Asbestos : Char Bagh , Chitral , D.I Khan , Zhob
Calcite : Lasbella , Zhob
China Clay : Hazara , Multan , Peshawar , Rawalpindi
Coal : Dandot , Degari , Makarwal
Dolomite : D.I Khan , Jhimpir , Rawal pindi
Flourite : Chitral , Dir , Hazara
Glass sand : Bande sadiq , Mianwali , Salt Range
Graphite : Chitral , Hazara , Khyber
Gypsum : Dadu , D.I khan , Hyderabad , Kohat , Sibi , Quetta
Limestone : Daudkhel , D.I Khan , Hyderabad , Kalat , Rohri
Marble : Attock , Chagi , Gilgit , Hazara , Mardan, Swat
Natural Gas : Dhurnal , Kandhkot, Mayal , Mari , Sui ,Tut , Uch
Precious Stones : Chitral , Hunza , Malakand , Swat
Salt : Bahadur Khel , Khewra , Kalabagh
Silica : Dandot , Hazara , Jangshahi , Makarwal 
Sulphur : Chitral , Hyderabad , Kalat , Koh sultan


National Anthem of pakistan was written by renowned poet ” Hafeez Jullundari ” in 1954.The anthem consist of 50 words arranged in 15 lines.Renowned musician “Abdul Karim Chhagle” composed the Anthem.A total number of 11 male and female singers took part in its musical composition.Pakistan national anthem was first played on 13th august,1954 before “Shah of Iran Raza Shah Pehlavi”.

National Saving Organization (NSO)

The NSO works under the Directorate of National Saving. The directorate has 12 regions and 365 branches in pakistan. It offers many saving schemes which include saving account,Defence Saving Certificates, Khas Deposit Certificates , Postal Life Insurance , Mahana Amdani Accounts and Prize Bonds

National Holidays

1. Pakistan republic day (23rd march)
2. Labour day (1st may)
3. Bank Holiday (1st july)
4. Independence day (14th aug)
5. Defence day (6th sep)
6. Death Anniversary of Quaid-e-Azam (11th sep)
7. Birth Anniversay of Allama Iqbal (9th nov)
8. Birth Anniversary of Quaid-e-Azam (25th dec)

In addition, The govt of pakistan notifies holidays on Eid-ul-Fitr and Eid -ul-Uzha,Ashura Muharram and Eid Milad-un-Nabi according to islamic Calendar

Press Organization of pakistan

1. APNS : All-Pakistan News Agency
2. PFUJ : Pakistan Federal Union of Jounalists
3. APNEC : All-Pakistan News Employees Confederation
4. NECP : Newspapers Editors Council of Pakistan


1. APP : Associated Press of Pakistan
2. INP : Independent News of Pakistan
3. IPS : Islamabad Press Service
4. PPI : Pakistan Press International

More Information of pakistan

* Syed Ahmed khan wrote ” Khutbat-i-Ahmadiya ” on 1869 in reply to william muir`s ” Life of Mohammad”

* Sir syed retired from service in 1976

* The total area of pakistan is 796096 square kilometres (307374 sq mi )

* There are 27 divisions and 108 districts in pakistan

* The total number of primary schools are 169,087,middle schools are 19180 and high schools are 13108.

* The number of registered doctors are 92248, Nurses are 40114 and Dentists are 4622.

* The first postage stamp of pakistan issued on 9th july, 1948

* The first census of pakistan was conducted on 9th feb,1951

* Gen. Ayub khan took over as the president on 17th feb ,1960 and Gen. A M Yahya khan took over on 31st mar.1969.

* PPP was founded by ZA bhutto on 30th nov,1967.

* The 1973 Constitution of pakistan promulgated on 12th april, 1973.

* Dr. Abdul Salam was awarded Nobel Peace Prize in Physics on 15th oct,1979.

Foriegn policy of pakistan

1.Foriegn policy
2.Principles of Pakistan foriegn policy
3.SIX important phases of pakistan policy
4.Relation of pakistan and Super power (USA)
5.Relation of pakistan and Russia 
6.Relation with Islamic world (Relation with Afghanistan,Iran,Turkey,Saudiarab,Bangladesh)
7.Importance of kashmir problem in indo-pak relation
8.Importance of foriegn policy
9.Pakistan and OIC,SAARC,NAM and ECO

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